Webinar – The Keys to Regulation for Embedded Networks

Webinar – The Keys to Regulation for Embedded Networks

AU Energy Compliance

In this webinar, lawyer and regulatory energy expert Alex Silcock provides a review of regulatory arrangements for embedded networks titled “The Keys to Regulations for Embedded Networks” including key takeaways for Embedded Network Operators, Exempt Sellers and On-Market and Off-Market Retailers. The Keys to Regulations for Embedded Networks

The Compliance Quarter team is dedicated to providing excellent service to our clients across the energy sector and this includes insight into current and potential future regulation within the industry. If you have any questions about embedded networks or the sector in general, please do not hesitate to contact us.

Below you can view a video of the webinar along with the presentation slides and a full transcript.

Background and Current Regulatory Framework

  • Definition of Embedded Network
  • Consumer Protection
  • Benefits of Embedded Networks
  • The Power of Choice

Timeline of Regulatory Change

  • November 2012 – Power of Choice Review.
  • November 2017 – Final Report on Review of Regulatory Arrangements in Embedded Networks.
  • 2019-2020 – Recommendations from the Final Report implemented
  • December 2015 – Changes to the National Electricity Rules to implement the Power of choice.
  • December 2017 – Final Power of Choice Rules come into effect.

Elevation of Embedded Networks into the National Framework

Owning, controlling or operating a distribution system (NEL)

  • Register with AEMO as a network service provider
  • Exemption from registration as network service provider.

Selling energy (NERL)

  • Authorisation as a retailer from AER.
  • Exemption from authorisation as a retailer.

Owning, controlling or operating a distribution system (NEL)

  • Register with AEMO as a network service provider.
  • Registration with AEMO as a registered embedded network service provider.
  • Exemption from registration as network service provider – limited circumstance.

Selling energy (NERL)

  • Authorisation as a retailer from AER
  • Authorisation as an on-selling retailer from AER – additional flexibility.
  • Exemption from authorisation as a retailer – limited circumstances.

AEMC Review of regulatory arrangements for emebedded networks 2017

Changes for Sellers in new Embedded Networks

‘Any party who sells energy to a consumer in an embedded network to hold a retailer authorisation from the AER or be exempted by the AER from holding a retailer authorisation according to a narrow set of circumstances’.

Heightened consumer protection requirements and compliance obligations.

Metering responsibilities and compulsory Embedded Network Manager appointments.

Provision of information on costs, benefits and risks to Embedded Network customers prior to entry into retail contracts.

Changes for Network Operators in new Embedded Networks

‘the registration of embedded network service providers with AEMO should be required unless exempted by the AER according to a narrow set of circumstances’.

Heightened obligations focused on consumer protection.

Obligations to be under the Retail Rules and Retail Law.

Guaranteed Service Level Schemes.

Impact on current Authorised Retailers only engaged in on-selling.

Increased Regulatory Certainty

  • Authorised retailers are already well prepared
  • ‘Designated Retailer’ concept and the tripartite relationship
  • Risk of duel obligations.

Effect on Legacy Embedded Networks

AER Enforcement and ease of switching on-market.

Where there is an ENM appointment, child embedded network customer connections must be issued with National Metering Identifiers (NMIs), so they are discoverable by retailers.

AER to have specified role codified in legislation to monitor embedded network service provider and exempt selling behaviour.

Enforcement options for network exemption breaches, to be more closely aligned with powers for retail exemption breaches.

ENSP to charge the retailer no more than the equivalent external network charge that would have been charged by the LNSP if the customer had been directly connected to the LNSP’s network.

Going on Market and Network Charges

Keys to Regulation for Embedded Networks - Option 1

Keys to Regulation for Embedded Networks - Option 2

AEMC Review of regulatory arrangements for embedded networks 2017

The Keys to Regulation for Embedded Networks Presentation Slides

What are the rules for embedded networks in Western Australia?

What are the rules for embedded networks in Western Australia?

AU Energy Compliance

The regulatory landscape for embedded networks in Australia is complicated. There are four separate regulatory frameworks:

  1. New South Wales, South Australia, Australian Capital Territory, Queensland, Tasmania (National Energy Customer Framework jurisdictions);
  2. Victoria;
  3. Northern Territory; and
  4. Western Australia.

By Dr Drew Donnelly, Compliance Quarter.

Within each framework, there are significant jurisdictional variations (for example, strata legislation in NSW and Queensland impose different obligations on embedded networks). Furthermore, some frameworks overlap with the others (for example, a Victorian embedded network may require both a network exemption from the Australian Energy Regulator and a network activity exemption from the Essential Services Commission (Victoria)).

In today’s article, we look at the key features of the regulatory framework for embedded networks in Western Australia (WA).

What is an embedded network?

An electricity embedded network is a private electricity distribution system that is connected to the main electricity network or ‘grid’. Owners, operators or service providers in embedded networks may be required to hold licences, authorisations or exemptions to carry out distribution, selling or generation within that embedded network depending on the rules of the jurisdiction that they operate in. Similar arrangements apply in the case of private gas distribution systems (‘gas embedded networks’).

The exemption framework in Western Australia

The distribution or sale of electricity WA is only permitted under a licence or an exemption under sections 7 and 8 of the Electricity Industry Act 2004. Analogous rules for the distribution and supply of gas apply under sections 11G and 11H of the Energy Coordination Act 1994.

Exemption orders made by the Governor to-date are:

  • For residential and commercial electricity embedded networks, the Electricity Industry Exemption Order 2005;
  • For caravan parks, the Electricity Industry (Caravan Park Operators) Exemption Order 2005;
  • For residential and commercial gas embedded networks, the Energy Coordination Exemption Order 2009;
  • For Solar Power Purchase Agreement providers, the Electricity Industry (Solar Power Purchase Agreements) Exemption Order 2016.

The first three exemption orders contain ‘class exemptions’, which apply automatically to exemption-holders. The last exemption order applies to suppliers only by individual application to the Public Utilities Office.

Conditions contained in the Electricity Industry Exemption Order 2005 that apply to residential customers include:

  • where the on-seller buys electricity from Synergy or Horizon Power, the customer may not be charged more for electricity consumption than a residential customer of Synergy or Horizon Power would be charged;
  • where customers are within Synergy or Horizon Power’s licence area, the customer may not be charged more for the daily fixed supply charge than a residential customer of Synergy or Horizon Power would be charged;
  • If the on-seller generates its own electricity, the residential customer of the on-seller may not be charged more for the electricity than the cost the on-seller incurs in generating that electricity;
  • The supplier must make available to each resident of the relevant premises information that clearly sets out —

(a) the quantity of electricity supplied to the resident; and

(b) the fees and charges payable by the resident;

— (i) for electricity supplied; and

— (ii) for the provision of electricity services.[1]

Do embedded network customers in Western Australia have the right to go ‘on-market’?

The biggest reform to electricity embedded networks over the last few years has been the introduction of ‘power of choice’ to embedded network customers. Power of choice reforms include changes to metering requirements, distributor arrangements and the introduction of a new ‘Embedded Network Manager’ role to facilitate customers in embedded networks accepting an offer from a ‘market retailer’. These reforms have not been extended to Western Australia.

In addition, WA does not have ‘full retail contestability’. Only customers that consumer more than 50 megawatts hours of electricity per annum have a right to choose their retailer within most of WA (in the ‘South West Interconnected System’). This covers the overwhelming majority of residential and business customers in WA.[2]

While there is nothing in principle stopping an electricity embedded network customer going ‘on market’, limited retail competition (most customers must be sold energy by one of either Synergy or Horizon Power, depending on where they are located), and the absence of any entity being responsible for this to occur (e.g. an Embedded Network Manager), would make it difficult for a customer to do so.

If you would like further information on the rules for setting up or operating an embedded network in Western Australia, please get in contact with us.

 

[1] See clause 6 of the Electricity Industry Exemption Order 2005.

[2] Read more at https://www.pv-magazine-australia.com/2018/03/12/report-full-retail-contestability-plans-for-wa-on-hold/.

Release of New AER Life Support Registration Guide

Release of New AER Life Support Registration Guide

AU Energy Compliance

AER has just released a new Life Support Registration Guide (the Guide) ahead of the commencement of the new Life Support National Energy Retail Rules (NERR) on the 1 February 2019. This update summaries the new registration guide and what retailers need to do to comply with it.

By Dr Drew Donnelly, Compliance Quarter. 

1.The New Life Support Rules

The new rules:

  • provide customers with life support protections from the time they inform their retailer or distributor that they rely on life support equipment until they are deregistered;
  • require the registration process owner (the retailer or distributor contacted by the customer) to:

* notify customers of their rights and obligations under the life support rules;

* follow a prescribed process for obtaining medical confirmation of customer eligibility to be on the life support register;

* follow a prescribed process for the removal of a customer from the register where medical confirmation is not provided;

* establish a clear process to enable either the retailer or distributor to deregister the premises if the customer advises that life support equipment is no longer required.

  1. The Guide

The Guide sets out the different steps that retailers and distributors must take at each stage of the process in accordance with the new rules, including the customer notification process, medical confirmation, de-registration and information sharing and record-keeping requirements. It also sets out the AER’s approach to compliance and enforcement with respect to the new life support rules. This includes that:

  • with the commencement of the new rules on 1 February 2019, businesses must have policies, systems and procedures in place for registering and deregistering premises requiring life support equipment. This includes maintaining accurate and up to date registers and ensuring deregistrations are carried out in accordance with the NERR;
  • a failure to meet life support obligations is a civil penalty provision under the NERR which means court-ordered penalties of up to $100 000 for a corporation and up to $20 000 for individuals per contravention. The AER also has the power to issue infringement notices;
  • the self-reporting compliance framework requires retailers and distributors to report possible breaches of the Retail Law and Retail Rules. The life support obligations are classified as immediate and must be reported within two business days of the business identifying them, given the potential for serious customer harm.
  1. What about Embedded Networks?

Authorised Retailers who supply to customers in embedded networks will be subject to the new life support rules just like any other authorised retailer. The new rules do not apply to embedded network operators operating solely under network and/or retail exemption

The life support obligations for exemption holders are provided in the AER Electricity NSP Registration Exemption Guideline (Network Guideline) and the AER Retail Exempt Selling Guideline (Exempt Selling Guideline), respectively. These include requirements not to disconnect customers who rely on life support equipment (without making alternative arrangements for the customers safety) and the requirement to ensure that parent and child connection point retailers are informed of customers with life support needs.

Next Steps

  • Ensure that internal processes are updated as recommended in the Registration Guide to manage registration processes;
  • Conduct a compliance risk assessment with respect to the new rules and submit to the organisations Board for consideration.

Read the Guide at https://www.aer.gov.au/system/files/1482_AER_Life%20Support%20Guide_FA_WEB%20%28002%29.pdf.

 

 

Default Retail Price for Electricity to apply from 1 July 2019  

AU Energy Compliance

The Commonwealth Government has just directed that the Australian Energy Regulator (AER) begin work on developing a mechanism for introducing a default price for electricity.

What we know

The Commonwealth Government has asked that a default market offer and associated default market price be introduced for National Energy Customer Framework (NECF) jurisdictions, which means:

  • the default price will replace the standing offer price in NECF areas that currently do not have price regulation;
  • the price will be set by the AER on the basis of the costs incurred by the retailer as well as allowance for a reasonable margin.

The default price would come into effect on 1 July 2019 with publicly released by 30 April 2019.

In addition, the Commonwealth Government has requested that the AER begin work implementing:

  • A reference bill, based on benchmarks from which advertised discounts must be calculated (including win-back and retention offers), using the default price set by AER. This would apply to generally available offers marketed at both residential and small and medium enterprise (SME) customers.

Comment

The proposed default price will not apply in areas where there is currently price regulation, which covers ACT, regional Queensland and Tasmania.

The Commonwealth Government has also announced that, after introducing the default price changes, the Government intends updating consumer protections and abolishing  Standard Retail Contracts. It is not clear yet which of the protections current contained in Standard Retail Contracts will be carried through to default market offers.

It is unknown, whether and when a default market offer would be extended to Victoria. Note, however, that it was a recommendation of the ACCC Retail Pricing Inquiry that the Victorian regulatory framework be unified with the NECF.

For more information see https://www.aer.gov.au/system/files/Letter%20to%20the%20AER%20Chair%20-%20dafault%20pricing.pdf.

August Retail Pricing Update

August Retail Pricing Update

AU Energy Compliance

Retail prices have dominated the headlines over the past week, with ongoing discussion of some retailers posting record profits and resultant calls for a Royal Commission into Energy. At the same time there have been some significant changes relating to energy retail pricing which have either been announced or recently came into force. In light of this we provide a quick update on the National Energy Guarantee (NEG), electricity default prices and changes to the display of pricing information.

 

By Dr Drew Donnelly, Compliance Quarter.

1. Emissions obligation in the NEG – gone for now

Perhaps the most significant of the Commonwealth Government’s policies intended to reduce retail electricity prices was the National Energy Guarantee (NEG). On 20 August then Prime Minister, Malcolm Turnbull, announced that the emissions obligation component of the NEG has been dropped, for the time being, due to a perceived lack of support in the House of Representatives. However, the reliability component, for which Turnbull claimed there is a “crying need”, was to remain. This requirement would mean that retailers and generators need to contract for a certain amount of supply to guarantee reliability.

At the same press conference there was also an interesting aside bearing on the NEG. It was announced that Cabinet had agreed that the establishment of any emissions standard or variation thereof would require the confirmation from energy regulators and the ACCC that it would not increase electricity prices. This would be a significant barrier to any future attempt to bring in future emissions or renewables targets whatever form they may take.

While declaring the emissions component ‘dead’, the new PM has not ruled out the continuation of the reliability component of the NEG.

2. A default price across the National Electricity Market

Both the former PM and current PM also announced that, following the final report of the ACCC Retail Pricing Inquiry, there will be a default price for electricity set for each state by regulators. This will replace standing offer prices and will create an effective ‘ceiling’ on electricity prices.

Of course, as with the NEG, this too will need sufficient political support and we can expect strong opposition to a perceived re-introduction of electricity price controls.

3. New Retail Pricing Information Requirements

New requirements for the display of pricing information through ‘Energy Made Easy’ (EME) came into effect on the 31 August 2018 for all authorised retailers in National Energy Retail Law jurisdictions. This change replaced the existing Energy Price Fact Sheet with two documents a Basic Plan Information Document (BPID) and a Detailed Plan Information Document (DPID). While the new Guideline is being implemented in stages, the first stage requires that all plans currently in EME need to be updated to the new documents with corresponding updated cross-referencing in retailer contracts and marketing materials. While the documents will be automatically created by EME, it is the responsibility of the retailer to ensure that the necessary information has been provided to EME.
If you need any assistance with this, please don’t hesitate to get in contact.

Webinar – The Exemption Party is Over – bringing embedded networks into the national framework

Webinar – The Exemption Party is Over – bringing embedded networks into the national framework

AU Energy Compliance

In this Compliance Quarter free webinar, founder Connor James, is joined by Alex Silcock to look at the recent news developments that will mean the end of exemptions and what this means for embedded networks and the national framework.

We produce content for our clients in the form of webinars, online compliance training, news articles, and analysis. This is delivered through our custom compliance software, the Compliance HUB. In addition, the HUB is focused on helping our clients manage successful compliance programs and is supported by our regulatory expertise. If you would like to know more, please contact us by clicking here to access the contact form. We hope you enjoy the webinar.

AEMC Rule regarding customers experiencing hardship

AEMC Rule regarding customers experiencing hardship

AU Energy Compliance

Customer hardship remains an area of significant concern for regulators of the Australian energy market. As energy is an essential service, energy hardship provisions aim to ensure the continuity of supply and management of energy debt for those individuals who are experiencing hardship.

On 6 September 2018, the Australian Energy Market Commission (AEMC) made a draft rule to help customers who are having trouble paying their bills due to hardship.

A new rule 75A will be inserted into the National Energy Retail Rules which will require that the Australian Energy Regulator develop, maintain and publish a customer hardship policy guideline. The customer hardship policy guideline will include processes, timelines and requirements to be complied with by retailers in connection with the approval or variation of their customer hardship policies, and standardise statements that retailers must include in their customer hardship policies.

Retailers will be required to use consistent, transparent, and specific action statements in their hardship policies so that customers understand their rights. Retailers will be obliged to ensure that they demonstrate how they will identify vulnerable customers early. Retailers will be required to set out how they will help vulnerable customers pay their bills by ensuring that customers on the best energy plan they can be, offering programs to help customers manage energy usage, such as home energy audits, and lastly by putting customers on a  manageable payment plan.

The new rule includes civil penalties for non-compliance and the AER will have greater insight into retailers’ hardship programs by amendments to the reporting guidelines. New retailers will not be able to start their business until they have an approved hardship policy in place

COAG Energy Council meeting

AU Energy Compliance

Energy Ministers met on 10 August 2018 for the 18th Energy Council Ministerial Meeting. The Ministers considered a number of issues including the National Energy Guarantee and the ACCC’s Retail Electricity Pricing Inquiry.

Photo by Christian Dubovan on Unsplash

By Anne Wardell, Regulatory Specialist, Compliance Quarter.
The National Energy Guarantee (NEG)

In relation to the NEG, the Ministers referred to the work completed to date by the Independent Energy Security Board (ESB) and ‘reiterated the importance of effectively integrating energy and climate policy with the Commonwealth, state and territory governments working together to deliver more affordable, reliable and cleaner power’.

The Ministers agreed to the release of the exposure draft of the National Electricity Law amendments, subject to confirmation at a Council teleconference to be held on 14 August 2018. The question of whether a reliability gap could emerge at any time across the 10 year forecast period was raised by the South Australian Minister, The Hon Daniel van Holst Pellekaan MP, and the Council asked the ESB to ‘consult on legilsative options for addressing this issue’.

The ESB and Commonwealth papers on the detailed design are available on the COAG Energy Council website.

ACCC’s Retail electricity pricing inquiry

The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC) released a final report on their Retail Electricity Pricing Inquiry on 11 July 2018. The ACCC Chair, Mr Rod Sims, attended the meeting and briefed the Ministers in relation to the ACCC’s Retail Electricity Pricing Inquiry and updated Council on the ACCC’s Gas Inquiry 2017-2020.

In relation to the final report the Ministers agreed to:

  • act quickly by progressing an initial set of 16 cross-jurisdictional recommendations from the Report, including recommendations to reduce the time it takes for consumers to switch
    retailers, ensure consumers get the information they need before their contract ends and fast tracking consideration of strengthening of penalties and AER’s investigative powers.
  • a program of work to consider the remaining 23 recommendations that are COAG Energy Council’s responsibility. The Council will consult on these recommendations as appropriate to ensure close cooperation on delivering results for consumers.

A copy of the Meeting Communique is available here.

July 2018 Energy Round-Up: Network Investment and National Energy Guarantee Returns

July 2018 Energy Round-Up: Network Investment and National Energy Guarantee Returns

AU Energy Compliance

The CQ monthly round-up is the only comprehensive coverage of regulatory changes for energy businesses across the eastern and south-eastern states and territories.

In today’s round-up we cover changes, announcements and consultations from 6th of July through ‘til the 9th of August. The major themes this month are the National Energy Guarantee (once again) and ongoing policy work on network investment. We consider Commonwealth and Commonwealth agency decisions and announcements first before looking at updates in each of the eastern and south-eastern jurisdictions.

  1. Commonwealth Government and Energy Security Board

On 1 August, the Commonwealth Government and the Energy Security Board published the Final Detailed Design of the National Energy Guarantee.[1] To read more about the detailed design see https://www.compliancequarter.com.au/the-details-of-the-detailed-design-national-energy-guarantee-and-qualifying-contracts/.

  1. Australian Energy Regulator (AER) actions and consultations

The AER made the following announcements over the period:[2]

  • Initiation of a review of the cost thresholds associated with the regulatory investment test (RIT) for transmission and distribution. A draft determination will be published by 11 September 2018;
  • On 30 July, the release of a guidance note aimed at reducing errors by retailers in performance reporting. Compulsory reading for all retailers;
  • Improved cost benefit analysis for RIT;
  • Alinta Energy has paid penalties of $40,000 for allegedly switching customers without consent. An important reminder for all retailers to know the rules with respect to explicit informed consent;
  • On 20 July the release of an annual assessment of Demand Management Innovation Allowance expenditures by electricity distributors for 2016–17;
  • ENGIE paid penalties for an alleged failure to comply with power dispatch order from the energy market operator during a system event on 1 December 2016;
  • Release of draft decision on new rate of return guideline on 10 July, submissions due 14 September 2018;
  • Release of the draft Restricted Asset Exemption Guideline for electricity distribution businesses, along with the accompanying Explanatory Statement. Submissions close 20 August 2018 and can be sent to [email protected].
  1. Australian Energy Market Commission (AEMC)

Announcements over the period included:

  • On 9 August, the release of a draft rule designed to reduce the risk of customers being exposed to the financial shock of inaccurate estimated bills. Submissions due 20 September 2018;
  • On 26 July, the release of three final reports covering the Reliability Frameworks Review, Frequency Control Frameworks Review and Electricity Network Economic Regulatory Framework Review;
  • 26 July 2018, the AEMC provided the Reliability Panel with Terms of reference for the next stage of its review of the frequency operating standard.[3]
  1. Australian Energy Market Operator (AEMO)

The AEMO made some important announcements over the period:

  • Consultation on changes to the Reserve Level Declaration Guideline, submissions due 22 August 2018;
  • Consultation on changes to the MSATS CATS and WIGS Procedures, closing 31 August 2018. These changes affect a range of market participants include Market Retailers and Metering Co-ordinators;
  • On July 23, the AEMO released new Life Support Procedures for the B2B system. This Follows on from last year’s retail rule change putting specific obligations on distributors and retailers around life support notification. Introduces two new B2B transactions, LifeSupportRequest and LifeSupportNotification. The new procedures come into effect 1 Feb 2019. To read more about the rule change go to https://www.compliancequarter.com.au/strengthening-protections-customers-requiring-life-support-equipment/.[4]
  1. Commonwealth Department of the Environment and Energy

The Commonwealth Department of the Environment and Energy announced consultation on amendments to the National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting (Safeguard Mechanism) Rule 2015.[5] Submissions must be received by 7 September 2018.

  1. Australian Renewable Energy Agency (ARENA)

On 9 July ARENA announced the release of new Australian performance standards for home battery storage systems.[6]

  1. Clean Energy Finance Corporation (CEFC)

The CEFC announced the following support for clean energy projects over the period:

  • a $50 million cornerstone investment in Mirvac’s first institutional build-to-rent investment platform in Australia. The CEFC investment will enhance project design across apartments, using clean energy and energy efficiency technologies, with the potential to cut carbon emissions by as much as 40 per cent;
  • An update on CEFC investment commitments in the 12 months to 30 June 2018;
  • Collaboration with Morrison & Co to spearhead clean energy standards across Australian social and economic infrastructure assets, as part of a specialist $1 billion ‘green’ infrastructure fund;
  • a $59 million commitment to the Tasmanian Granville Harbour Wind Farm.[7]
  1. Clean Energy Regulator (CER)

The Clean Energy Regulator released its monthly Emissions Position and Emissions Reduction Fund carbon abatement statement.[8]

  1. Victoria

On 20 July the Essential Services Commission released an updated Compliance and Performance Reporting Guideline – (Version 4), taking into account the new Payment Difficulties Framework that comes into effect from 1 January 2019. They have also released updated reporting templates.[9]

  1. Tasmania

The Tasmanian Department of State Growth announced that it is reviewing its solar feed-in tariffs.[10]

  1. South Australia

On 8 August the Essential Services Commission of South Australia (ESCOSA) released the 2017 Retailer Energy Efficiency Scheme (REES) Annual Report. This audits achievement against the 2017 Ministerial targets for undertaking energy audits and energy efficiency activities in South Australia.

On 10 July ESCOSA released a generator licensing fact sheet.[11]

  1. New South Wales

The Independent Pricing and Regulatory Tribunal (IPART) released a draft report reviewing the financeability test used in its price regulation decisions (note, primarily relates to water decisions). Submissions due 7 September.[12]

  1. Australian Capital Territory (ACT)

On 6 august the ACT Government announced it will use the upcoming Energy Council meeting to seek significant improvements to the National Energy Guarantee (NEG).[13]

  1. Queensland

The Queensland Department of Natural Resources, Mines and Energy invited businesses to join a $10 million energy program to slash power use.[14]

The Queensland Competition Authority (QCA) released a monitoring report reviewing the prices that electricity retailers in south east Queensland charged between 1 April and 30 June 2018.[15]

 

 

[1] http://www.coagenergycouncil.gov.au/.

[2] For more information go to https://www.aer.gov.au/news.

[3][3] For more go to https://www.aemc.gov.au/news-centre/media-releases.

[4] See https://www.aemo.com.au/Stakeholder-Consultation/Consultations.

[5] Go to http://www.environment.gov.au/climate-change/government/emissions-reduction-fund/consultation/safeguard-mechanism-legislative-amendments-2018.

[6] To read more go to https://arena.gov.au/news/.

[7] To find out more go to https://www.cefc.com.au.

[8] See http://www.cleanenergyregulator.gov.au/.

[9] For more go to https://www.esc.vic.gov.au/.

[10] See https://www.stategrowth.tas.gov.au/news.

[11] Go to https://www.escosa.sa.gov.au/.

[12] Go to https://www.ipart.nsw.gov.au/Home/Industries/Special-Reviews/Reviews/Financeability-Tests/Review-of-financeability-test-2018.

[13] See https://www.cmtedd.act.gov.au/open_government/inform/act_government_media_releases.

[14] See https://www.dnrme.qld.gov.au/home/.

[15] See http://www.qca.org.au/Media-Centre/Media-Releases/Media-Releases/2018/Jul.